Energt Efficient MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an attractive choice for a variety of applications as no wired infrastructure is needed. Other wireless networks are not as energy constrained as WSNs, because they may be plugged into the mains supply or equipped with batteries that are rechargeable and replaceable. Among others, one of the main sources of energy depletion in WSN is communications controlled by the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols. An extensive survey of energy efficient MAC protocols is presented in this article. We categorise WSN MAC protocols in the following categories: controlled access (CA), random access (RA), slotted protocols (SP) and hybrid protocols (HP). We further discuss how energy efficient MAC protocols have developed from fixed sleep/wake cycles through adaptive to dynamic cycles, thus becoming more responsive to traffic load variations. Finally we present open research questions on MAC layer design for WSNs in terms of energy efficiency


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